Monday, July 2, 2012

4G LTE Tecchnology

Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate.
In modern times, telecommunications involves the use of electrical devices such as the telephone,telegraph, and teleprinter, as well as the use of radio and microwave communications, as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics, plus the use of the orbiting satellites  and the internet.

A revolution in wireless telecommunication began in the 1900s (decade) with pioneering developments in wireless radio communication by Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo Marconi.

4G is the fourth generation of cell phone mobile communications standards. It is a successor of the third generation (3G) standards. A 4G system provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access, for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other mobile devices. Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high definition mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D television.

Two 4G candidate systems are commercially deployed: The Mobile WiMAX standard (at first in South Korea in 2006), and the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard (in Scandinavia since 2009). 

LTE (an initialism of Long Term Evolution), marketed as 4G LTE, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals. It is based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA network technologies, increasing the capacity and speed using new modulation techniques.
Long Term Evolution LTE is a revolutionary mobile technology which enhances the data transfer rates delivering faster mobile broadband experience and highest data speeds and reliability. LTE is an advancement in technology to the 3.5G and High Speed Packet Access, HSPA. It provides ubiquitous services for users on the GSM technology curve and also  others on CDMA and WiMAX platforms and is touted to offer the path breaking 4G experience for consumers. This is due to its ability to deliver very fast data speeds in excess of 100Mb/s uplink and 50Mb/s downlink.
The LTE specification provides downlink peak rates of 300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s. LTE has the ability to manage fast-moving mobiles and supports multi-cast and broadcast streams. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time-division duplexing (TDD).

Future Outlook of 4G Technology

A major issue in 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by micro-diversity techniques, also known as group cooperative relay, and also by Beam-Division Multiple Access(BDMA).

Wednesday, June 6, 2012


FiOS is a bundled internet access, telephone, and television service which is operated over a fibre-optics communications network. An optic fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made of glass (silica) or plastic slightly thicker than a human hair. It functions as Waveguide, or light pipe to transmit light between the two ends of the fibre.  FiOS

The data transmitted on the network include:
  1. I. Internet Access 
  2. II. Television service (Which is offered in Prime HD, Extreme HD, and Ultimate HD)
  3.  III. FiOS Digital voice (Voice over IP).
There two providers offering this service in the US presently. This technology is bound to take over the means of bulk data transfer all across the world, opening new frontiers for certified fibre optics engineers.